March Revolution, shooting in Petrograd, 1917.
March Revolution, shooting in Petrograd, 1917.
Funeral on Mars Field, Petrograd, of those who died fighting the government in the February Revolution, March 1917.
Beggars in St. Petersburg c.1919
A dying horse in the streets of St. Petersburg, due to the famine resulting from nearly five ongoing years of war and conflict.
Pavel Svedomskiy - Lonely Roman woman, 1884
Article written by a friend:
Blockade underwater- starving Japan.
The US like the Germans controlled vast amounts of material wealth and industrial productive power bases, and were fighting against an island enemy, Japan and Britain respectively. The main way the make war against the civilians who back the army and navy was to cruelly, effectively and ruthlessly purge the ability to make war- cut out the food and material imports the county was to bring in and make the nation starve itself out of the ability to wage war.
The attack on pearl harbour was for the US in its war with Japan actually a blessing in disguise. No vital carriers were hit that were to prove so useful in the coming battles of the pacific campaign, the battleships were either obsolete or refloated after they had been sunk (most of them, anyway) and for the moment, the US submarines weren’t hit. For all the horror and shock, the US got off rather lightly. After the stunning victories of the 1943-mid 44 campaigns, the US submarines could now effectively start to seriously hurt Japan economically.
Only 16,000 men served in the US’ submarines, compared to the 40,000 of the U-boats crewmen in the Kreigsmarine, but the US’s accomplishments far outweigh that of the German counterparts. US submarines sank nearly 55% of Japan’s wartime shipping losses, 1,300 vessels including a battleship, eight carriers and eleven cruisers, and a grand total of 6.1 million ton. This reached its peak effectiveness in October 1944, when American submarines sank 322,265 tons of enemy vessels. Of the previous months, Japan lost 213,00 in July, 245,000 in August, 181,300 in September, and 103,000 in December. These declining figures should not suggest that the Japanese countered the American submarines, rather that US commanders were running out of targets to attack.
Britain and America lost nearly 14million tons of Shipping due to German U-boat raiders in all the long bloody years of wwii, Japan was spared Submarine warfare because of US problems with both timid commanders and faulty torpedoes that effected their torpedo bombers too. Once the US started attacking in 1944, the records start to show for themselves. Japan had no effective countermeasure to the blockade as Britain and America did. It had no coastal patrol boats that could intercept American submarines operating in Japanese ports, it was slow to take up the convoy system that Britian and America employed, it had no coastal air reconnaissance and attack planes that Britain and America used so well with the Catalina, and most important of all- the US had broken the Japanese codes as the Allies had done with the Germans except for the now the situation was reversed.
Eventually, the US started mining the ports and coasts of Japan which further made an impact on the Japanese- 16% of their ships were lost this way. Combined with the Submarines, it made for grim reading- more than 70% of what Japan needed to continue functioning in war time was not getting any closer to its people or soldiers than to the bottom of the sea.
Originally designated at a late winter objective of 1941, Sevastopol was not taken until July 1942, holding up the German plans for the drives into the Caucuses. The level of savage fighting around Sevatopol would be repeated in 1944 as the Red army recaptured the Crimea.
Princess Olga was the wife of Igor of Kiev, who was killed by the Drevlians. Upon her husband’s death, their son, Svyatoslav, was three years old, making Olga the official ruler of Kievan Rus until he reached adulthood. The Drevlians wanted Olga to marry their Prince Mal, making him the ruler of Kievan Rus, but Olga was determined to remain in power and preserve it for her son.
The Drevlians sent twenty of their best men to convince Olga to marry their Prince Mal and give up her rule of Kievan Rus. She had them buried alive. Then she sent word to Prince Mal that she accepts the proposal, but requires their most distinguished men to accompany her on the journey in order for her people to accept the offer of marriage. The Drevlians sent their best men who governed their land. Upon their arrival, she offered them a warm welcome and an invitation to clean up after their long journey in abathouse. After they entered, she locked the doors and set fire to the building, burning them alive.
With the best and wisest men out of the way, she planned to destroy the remaining Drevlians. She invited them to a funeral feast so she could mourn over her husband’s grave, where her servants waited on them. After the Drevlians were drunk, Olga’s soldiers killed over 5,000 of them. She returned to Kiev and prepared an army to attack the survivors. The Drevlians begged for mercy and offered to pay for their freedom with honey and furs. She asked for three pigeons and three sparrows from each house, since she did not want to burden the villagers any further after the siege. They were happy to comply with such a reasonable request.
Now Olga gave to each soldier in her army a pigeon or a sparrow, and ordered them to attach by thread to each pigeon and sparrow a piece of sulfur bound with small pieces of cloth. When night fell, Olga bade her soldiers release the pigeons and the sparrows. So the birds flew to their nests, the pigeons to the cotes, and the sparrows under the eaves. The dove-cotes, the coops, the porches, and the haymows were set on fire. There was not a house that was not consumed, and it was impossible to extinguish the flames, because all the houses caught on fire at once. The people fled from the city, and Olga ordered her soldiers to catch them. Thus she took the city and burned it, and captured the elders of the city. Some of the other captives she killed, while some she gave to others as slaves to her followers. The remnant she left to pay tribute.
Olga remained Regent ruler of Kievan Rus with the support of the army and her people. She changed the system of tribute gathering (poliudie) in the first legal reform recorded in Eastern Europe. She continued to evade proposals of marriage, and saved the power of the throne for her son.
Lutheran Church in Minsk, Belarus c.1915-1918
Soviet delegation with Leon Trotsky greeted by German officers at Brest-Litovsk, press photo. 27 December 1917.
Secretary of the Bolshevik delegation at Brest-Litovsk, Lev Karakhan, at the telegraph that was used to communicate with Lenin in St. Petersburg.
House were the peace negotiations took place in Brest-Litovsk, winter 1917-1918.
A propaganda poster that reads: “Thank you, Comrade Stalin, for our happy childhood.” Both socialist realism and the cult of personality are present in this: Stalin, the giver and friend of the children, and the children with happy, beaming faces looking up at the loving, albeit distant Stalin.